Ediriweera Sarachchandra Essay Examples

By Ernest Macintyre –

Ernest Macintyre

It was an encounter of a man assessing the world he was growing up in. His native soil had been artificially separated from its Indian cultural estate by European poachers. Sarachchandra was imaginative, more than enough, to identify what was real, and so derive the best from his recently resident foreign separators, while recovering the distanced connections with India.

The cultural life of the Sinhalese, and to a lesser extent, of the Tamils of Lanka, in literature, drama, music and dance had declined due to a number of economic, environmental and socio-political factors including European colonisation and the resulting attenuation of relations with the subcontinent. Why, to a lesser extent, in the case of the Tamils may be understood from a statement by H.L. Seneviratne. When the Sinhalese and Tamils began to revive their  cultures, it “  placed the Sinhala ethnic group in the position of having to look inwards for inspiration, to the only indigenous culture it possessed, the folk culture, whereas the Tamils could look up to a larger and more complex, religion-based artistic tradition beyond the shores of Sri Lanka.”(1)

The higher Indian culture in Lanka during the long pre-European period of occupation would have been confined to Sinhala royal court society and its extensions. All this was no more. Only the authentic folk culture remained. It is clear from the way he deployed his energies, that of all the arts, Sarachchandra identified a drama that used as conveyance, dance, music, and poetic chant and song as having the greatest potential for a broad based national cultural revival. The existing form of this was the folk Nadagama which had its origins in South India and which had evolved to be authentically Sinhala by the early twentieth century.Unlike in the case of the Sinhalese, even during the European occupations, the Lankan Tamils had a cultural highway of contemporary language to the arts and life of another part of the world, South India. From here the Koothu folk drama had come to Jaffna and Batticoloa and had been used by the Catholic Church for their religious plays. The Church then took it to their Ceylon west coast Sinhala communities, and the Sinhala Nadagama came into being. This Nadagama was only the promising foundation on which Sarachchandra set out to “rebuild a culture which, while being rooted in a tradition, is yet progressive and adapted to survival in the modern world.” (2) To achieve this Sarachchandra standing confidently on his own soil looked at  the world, the world of Europe, classical, medieval and modern, the world of India, companion from ancient times, and the world of Japan which had established a unique cultural identity including its own variation of  Buddhism.

Maname princess

If the English language and literature, his Ceylon inheritance, gave Sarachchandra his way to European civilization, his mastery of Pali and Sanskrit confirmed his Indian sub- continental affinities, which he later broadened to encompass Asia in general, with special focus on the culture of Japan. While he was on a mission to revive Sinhala culture, but with an openness to the world, he had contemporaries on the same mission without access to the modern world. This was the exclusively Sinhala- educated sector, about whose insularity Sarachchandra revealed regret, at the same time rejoicing in their passion for Sinhala language and literature. He identified that very largely, culture was rooted in language, and that the Sinhala language had survived the colonial period. “Although the Sinhalese lost almost everything in the demoralization that set in from repeated foreign conquests, they had at least their language to go back to. And going back to the language is almost going back to the roots of the culture.” (3).

Of the exclusively Sinhala- educated, like Piyadasa Sirisena, he said, “…the attitudes of this entirely Sinhala educated middle class, whether it be in respect of literature and the arts, or in matters relating to life, have been …the natural result of a lack of acquaintance with the development of thought in the modern world.”(4)

Yet this statement by Sarachchandra is a well thought out prologue, not a closed off dismissal, for he goes on to acknowledge the debt to these people and pays his respects to them for being the passionate carers of Sinhala.“It was this class that preserved anything at all of the native tradition, and it is necessary to find a footing in some sort of tradition to take a step forward. …….” (5)

Most of Sarachchandra’s  specialization had languages functioning as complex kinds of conduits, the vehicle and the substance being conveyed inseparable in dynamic inter- related performance. Greek and Latin he learnt at school. English was not only learnt, it was part of the colonial environment he grew up in. There may not be an explicit acknowledgement of his entry to world culture through English, only statements, generally, such as about the class that Piyadasa Sirisena represented quoted above. “This lack of explicit acknowledgement is perhaps rooted in his imbibing these as part of his socialization, from early childhood to mature scholar, which made these his own, thereby making any acknowledgement uncalled for, says H.L. Seneviratne “(6)

Sarachchandra family

After schooling in English medium Christian institutions, Richmond College, Galle, St. Aloysius College, Galle, St. John’s College, Panadura, St. Thomas’ College, Mt. Lavinia, he matriculated with English, Latin and Greek. His Bachelor of Arts degree in 1936 was with Sanskrit ,Pali and Sinhala, after which he studied Indian Philosophy and Indian music at Santiniketan. Following this he did a Master’s in Western Philosophy at London University.In 1949 Sarachchandra earned his Ph.D. from London University with the thesis, “The Buddhist Psychology of Perception”, about which Professor K.N.O. Dharmadasa very relevantly observes, “He then returned to the Buddhist tradition, but with a Western outlook.” (7)

If his understanding and imbibing of Western culture was a part of his Ceylonese inheritance it seems equally true that his rootedness in Sinhala and Eastern culture was also a result of the same culture, except as a rebellion against it.

At that time in history, it would have been rare to have had a son who developed a world view, at an early age, that identified  indigenous culture as the rooted position for assessing the new big world introduced by the British. It was a reaction against what was seen as an easy upper middle class one-way Western track enticingly suggested by British colonization. Sarachchandra, when he was about twenty five was at the cross influences of colonialism, nationalism and Buddhist revivalism. He grew up as a Christian, in a family of devout Christians two of whom were priests. As a boy he played the organ at the local church. His father, a Buddhist, was converted to Christianity at marriage, one would imagine under the duress. His name was Eustace Reginold de Silva, and all other members of the family and clan had similar western names.

Then, under the influence of Indian cultural nationalism of the time, he relinquished his western name and renamed himself after the legendary Bengali novelist Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (Chattopadyay). His stay in Shantiniketan re-emphasized the cultural nationalism within him, and the opportunity to experience Shantiniketan life under Tagore would have been particularly inspiring.

Maname and the princess

Thus, his entry into and development in Western culture together with his simultaneous firming of roots in  Sinhala and Eastern culture, resulting from rebellion  probably incited by oppressive Christianising within  his family, provided the creative tensions from the pulls of East and West, to produce what was unique in Sarachchandra.He stands out separately as an intellectual, scholar and creative artist who, regardless of colonizing circumstances recognized in Western culture, some substances which could “manure” his Sinhala roots with no distortions of identity. These were carefully and discriminatingly infused to produce his contribution to the revival of post- Ceylon Sinhala culture.

Under the influence of British colonial domination, the continuity of the many thousands of years of cultural interactions between India and the Sinhalese was interrupted and distorted. “The distinction between Sinhalese art and Indian art certainly did not exist in the twenty centuries preceding independence, and such a long period of time cannot be discounted in considering a tradition” writes Sarachchandra (8). And “…the tendency for Ceylon to isolate itself from the cultural context of Greater India, which began with British times and continues today, may act as a hindrance.”(9) It is clear that the upper class English-educated, who received on their held out palms the platter of Independence, confused post-British political/legal sovereignty with cultural independence from India as well, especially  as this initial political leadership class, “ in every possible way tried not to identify themselves with the people of the country”, says Sarachchandra.(10) Ediriweera Sarachchandra was a leader amongst a group of men and women  who, like Thejawathie Gunawardane , Ananda Samarakoon, Sunil Shantha and W.D. Amaradeva, to mention a few,   understood that for revival, cultural sustenance needed to be drawn from India.   There was evidence of the Indian connections in painting, sculpture and architecture, and in literature too, but not in dance, drama and music, which had been courtly and now no more. Sarachchandra’s artistic interests were in these areas, and he understood that for these, he had to resort to India.

There was an apparently important qualification though, about the sustenance from India. “Although the culture of the Sinhalese stems from that of India, Theravada Buddhism has given it a stamp of its own which makes it distinguishable from the Hindu culture of India” (11) This statement of Sarachchandra coupled with his belief that “The national culture could be restored only on the basis of Buddhism and the language of the country, namely Sinhala” (12) when viewed against his passion for the theatre arts presented him with a need for an imaginative approach. While he cherished the belief that Theravada in Lanka preserves the religion in its most authentic form he found that it had to adjust, imaginatively, to modernization of a Buddhist society. Particularly in the arts of dance, music and drama which were his personality interests, the strictures of Theravada came in his way. He recalls with a deep sigh that the Theravada texts cite with approval the example of a monk who lived for more than thirty years in a rock cave , but because he was engaged in meditation, did not notice the paintings on the wall.(13). So, I discern from his writings that, he was also slanted towards Zen Buddhism of Japan in which the contemplation of the beauty and harmony in nature, as well as the beauty and harmony created by man leads to a calming of the passions and to a stilling of the mind, which are necessary preparations for the realization of Nirvana, while serving the worldly needs of man as well. (14) Maname and Sinhabahu are art forms that engage the passions during their progressions and so are not within the Theravada frame. But in the fact that the overall sentiment the audience is left with at the end of these great plays is compassion and pity, one senses an accommodation of the Zen position with Theravada values.

These then were Ediriweera Sarachchandra’s encounters. The Tamil culture of Lanka was not an encounter for Sarachchandra. He refers to “the close connection that seems to have existed even from early times between the Sinhala folk culture and the folk culture of the Tamils.”(15). From his writings in The folk Drama of Ceylon one could say that for him the Lankan Tamil culture was another organ that developed in the complex origins of the same body; functioning inter relatedly for the whole system. So he was unselfconscious about his identifying the derivations of Nadagama music and dance (the roots of his theatre) from Tamil sources.

Out of Sarachchandra’s encounters came the scholar, the novelist, the literary critic, and most enduring, the dramatist.  Mention of his scholarly work in philosophy and psychology has been made earlier in this piece. Time, inevitably washes over scholarship depositing new material in waves of research. The one work of his scholarship that, I think, will remain unaltered, is “The Folk Drama of Ceylon” (1952, revised 1956) because the living, raw, folk material of his research is hardly found now. Even if otherwise, the long and patient observational research produces a design that emerges from the work, not constructed upon it. For scholars and imaginative readers, it is a work that does not confine itself to Ceylon, for as The Times of London Literary Supplement notes, “it is so wide in scope that it must surely interest all who wish to trace the development of dramatic forms “(16).

Saarchchandra was a novelist of note both in Sinhala and English, Malagiya Attho (The Dead,1959) being considered his best in Sinhala and Curfew and A Full Moon and With A Begging Bowl  in English.

The British introduced novel was new to Sinhala literature (Nava Katha) and Sarachchandra produced a new literary evaluation based on both the then current English literary criticism and Sanskrit poetics. (17)

About his plays, knowledge and appreciation are widespread. So, I will confine myself to what I think Sarachchandra did, in effect, for drama in Sri Lanka, which may not yet be correctly identified. Here was a country with no developed dramatic theatre, only rudimentary folk performances. When he conceived creating such developed drama using the folk forms as the ground soil on which he would transplant European, Indian and Japanese classical growths, his colleague, Professor of English, E.F.C.Ludowyk recommended instead a twentieth century start up from scratch, with contemporary prose drama. Sarachchandra gradually moved away from this idea. He decided, in effect, to ignore linear time, and create a classical verse, dance, song drama, which would then, in effect, be “timeless”, not marked as 1956 or 1961. In theatrical form it was classical and pre -prose. Sarachchandra later said that he was mistaken in thinking that Maname and Sinhabahu would provide the form for a national drama, and which partly vindicates Ludowyk’s position. Where Sarachchandra was right, though, in effect, was that great drama in the classical genre, would lead to new dramatists, yet to come, creating contemporary prose drama as great. He was well aware that Ibsen and Chekhov, the great masters of modern prose drama had behind them the impetus of the classical drama of Greece, and Shakespeare. They didn’t start from scratch.

2014, the year of the hundredth birth anniversary of Ediraweera Sarachchandra, fades. Will people still be writing in the hundred and fiftieth or two hundredth birth anniversary? My guess is that they will. I said so at a seventy fifth birthday celebration for professor Sarachchandra in Colombo in 1989. It happened to be a time when British educational authorities had done a survey of what young people knew of the public personalities of a hundred years before. The political leaders were unknown, even the great William Gladstone , Prime Minister in 1889. They were joyously familiar, though, with Wilde, Congreve, Sheridan, Milton and of course the much earlier Shakespeare. These once living bodies, particularly Shakespeare, had left their great souls behind for temporal enrichment. So it will be with all the ephemeral excitement of Presidential elections. It is probable that, long from now, no one will know of the political  leaders since 1948, while lights will still be going up on stages, as two young actors perform joyously , unknowing of what’s to come,  “ Prema Yen Mana Ranjitha We    Nanditha We” or a  lone actor sings his heart out, wrenchingly, with  “ Gal lena bindala, len dora harala”.

Notes

1. Home and the World, Essays in honour of Sarath Amunugama. Colombo: Siripa Publishers, 2010, H.L. Seneviratne’s Essay, Towards a National Art, p.74

2. Problems Connected with Cultural Revival in Ceylon Collected Papers of Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Ed. P.B. Galahitiyawa and K.N.O. Dharmadasa. Colombo: S.Godage and Bros, 1995. Essay, Problems Connected with Cultural Revival in Ceylon, p.31

3. Ibid, p.30

4. Ibid, p. 29

5 Ibid, p.30

6. Personal communication from H.L. Seneviratne 11/9/2014

7. Collected Papers of Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Ed. P.B. Galahitiyawa and K.N.O. Dharmadasa. Colombo: S.Godage and Bros, 1995. Introduction by Professor K.N.O. Dharmadasa, p.2

8. Ibid, Problems Connected with Cultural Revival in Ceylon, p.34

9. Ibid, Traditional Values and The Modernization Of A Buddhist Society, p. 47

10. Ibid, The Traditional Culture of Ceylon And Its Present Position, p.8

11. Ibid, Essay, Problems Connected with Cultural Revival in Ceylon, p.31

12. Ibid, Essay, Problems Connected with Cultural Revival in Ceylon, p.27

13. Ibid, Essay, Traditional Values and The Modernization of A Buddhist Society: The Case of Ceylon, p.45

14. Ibid, Essay, Traditional Values and The Modernization of A Buddhist Society: The Case of Ceylon, p.45

15. The Folk Drama of Ceylon, by Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Colombo: Department of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon 1966 p.92

16. The Folk Drama of Ceylon, by Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Colombo: Department of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon 1966, flyleaf cover

17. Sinhala Writers and The New Critics, by Ranjini Obeyesekere: Colombo M.D. Gunasena 1974, pp.39-53

*The writer grew into a playwright and director from the University Dramatic Society of Peradeniya University producing theatre work in Sri Lanka and Australia.

1. Galle – Galle is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip,119 km from Colombo. Galle is the capital of Southern Province, Sri Lanka and is the district capital of Galle District. Galle was known as Gimhathiththa before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, Galle reached the height of its development in the 18th century, during the Dutch colonial period. Galle is the best example of a city built by the Portuguese in South and Southeast Asia. The city was fortified by the Dutch during the 17th century from 1649 onwards. The Galle fort is a heritage site and is the largest remaining fortress in Asia built by European occupiers. On 26 December 2004, the city was devastated by the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Thousands were killed in the city alone, Galle is home to the Galle International Stadium, which is considered to be one of the most picturesque cricket grounds in the world. The ground, which was damaged by the tsunami, was rebuilt. Important natural geographical features in Galle include Rumassala in Unawatuna, a large hill that forms the eastern protective barrier to Galle Harbour. Local tradition associates this hill with some events of Ramayana, one of the great Hindu epics. The major river in the area is the Gin River, which begins from Gongala Kanda, passes villages such as Neluwa, Nagoda, Baddegama, Thelikada and Wakwella, the river is bridged at Wakwella by the Wakwella Bridge. Galle was known as Gimhathitha in ancient times, the term is believed to be derived from the classical Sinhalese term meaning port near the river Gin. Gaala in Sinhala means the place where cattle are herded together, hence the Sinhalese name for Galle, another theory is that the word Galle is derived from the Dutch word ‘Gallus’, which means rooster. The Dutch have used the rooster as a symbol of Galle, according to James Emerson Tennent, Galle was the ancient seaport of Tarshish, from which King Solomon drew ivory, peacocks and other valuables. Cinnamon was exported from Sri Lanka as early as 1400 BC, Galle had been a prominent seaport long before western rule in the country. Persians, Arabs, Greeks, Romans, Malays, Indians, the modern history of Galle starts in 1502, when a small fleet of Portuguese ships, under the command of Lourenço de Almeida, on their way to the Maldives, were blown off course by a storm. Realising that the king resided in Kotte close to Colombo, Lourenço proceeded there after a stop in Galle

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6. S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia – S. Thomas College, Mount Lavinia is a selective entry boys private Anglican school providing primary and secondary education in Sri Lanka. It is considered to be one of the most prestigious schools in the country, S. Thomas’ College was founded by the first Bishop of Colombo, the Rt. It was his foremost vision to build a College & Cathedral for the new Diocese of Colombo of the Church of Ceylon, S. Thomas College dates back to 1851 when it was founded in Mutwal as the College of St. Thomas the Apostle, Colombo. Rev. James Chapman, the first Bishop of Colombo, started the school to train Christian clergy and to make good citizens under the discipline. An old boy of Eton College, Bishop Chapman founded the college on the Etonian model, in 1852 Bishop Chapman laid the foundation stone of the college chapel on a hill in the school grounds. The chapel became Christ Church Cathedral of the Colombo Diocese of the Church of Ceylon when it was dedicated on 21 September 1854. In 1918, the school moved away from the dusty environs of Mutwal, here, on 13 October 1923, the foundation stone for what would become The Chapel of the Transfiguration was laid by the Bishop of Colombo, Rt. Rev. Ernest Arthur Copleston, and the chapel was completed on 12 February 1927, Rev. Mark Carpenter-Garnier, Bishop of Colombo. In 1951, S. Thomas became a private fee-levying school, the College which is under the Anglican Church of Ceylon, is run by a Board of Governors which is chaired by the Anglican Bishop of Colombo, who is also known as the Visitor of the College. The administration of the College itself is headed by a warden, admission to the College is at the sole discretion of the warden. S. Thomas College, Bandarawela S. Thomas College, Gurutalawa S, there are 5 Houses at STC, four of which are day houses, for those who do not live in the Boarding House. It was in the time of Warden McPherson that a house system was introduced. In 1926, the day boys were divided first into 5 houses, namely Wood, Buck, Stone, De Saram, boys were allotted in them according to the location of their residences. Wood house consisted of boys from Ratmalana, further south and from Nugegoda, Stone and Buck housed children from Mount Lavinia, the former consisting of those whose surnames starts from A to M, while the latter of the rest. Baly housed boys who lived in Wellawatte and Bambalapitiya, children who were from Dehiwala, Slave Island & Fort were allotted in Jermyn House. This system was not found successful, the most prominent sports are those classified as the Royal-Thomian. These sports take precedence because of the given to the clash between S. Thomas oldest rival, the Royal College, Colombo. A cricket match between these colleges takes place in the first term of Lent every year, as the rains begin in Michaelmas Term, the rugby season has kicked off and the main encounter is the Royal-Thomian Rugby match. L

7. University of Colombo – The University of Colombo is a public research university located primarily in Colombo, Sri Lanka. It is the oldest institution of higher education in Sri Lanka. Specialised in the fields of natural, social, and applied sciences as well as mathematics, computer sciences and it is ranked among the top 10 universities in South Asia. The University of Colombo was founded in 1921 as University College Colombo, degrees were issued to its students from 1923 onwards. The university traces its roots to 1870 when the Ceylon Medical School was established, UoC has produced notable alumni in the fields of science, law, economics, business, literature, and politics. The university is a university, with most of its funding coming from the central government via the University Grants Commission. Therefore, as all other state universities in Sri Lanka. Its motto is Buddhih Sarvatra Bhrajate, which means Wisdom shines forth everywhere in Sanskrit, with a student population of over 11,000, the university is made up of seven faculties with 43 academic departments and eight other institutions. Most faculties offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, with some offering courses for external students and distance-learning programs. The university occupies an estate of 50 acres in the heart of the city of Colombo known as Cinnamon Gardens, the administrative center of the university is the College House, which houses the office of the vice-chancellor. Its period architecture is a city landmark, on the other side of the Reed Avenue is the university library flanked by the arts and law faculty buildings along with the gymnasium. The Institute of Indigenous Medicine is located in the suburbs of Colombo in Nawala, in addition, there are several properties outside Colombo, including the Sri Palee Campus in Wewala, Horana and the Institute of Agro Technology and Rural Science in Hambantota. The origins of the University of Colombo begins with the establishment of the Ceylon Medical School in June 1870, in 1889 the College was recognised by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom when holders of its license became eligible to practice in Great Britain. The Ceylon University Association was formed in 1906 by a group of educated elite including Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam, Sir James Peiris. Owing to the persistent demands of the CUA the government decided in 1913 to set up a University college, the University College was affiliated to the University of London and prepared students for University of London external degrees which were jointly examined. Even though this short of a full university for Ceylon. It had two departments, Arts and Science, the Ceylon University College and the Ceylon Medical College were combined to form the University of Ceylon, with its administration based at College House and ability to grant its own degrees. The university library was based at Villa Venezia in Queens Road, later in 1952, the faculties of Arts and Oriental Studies were moved to Peradeniya too along with sections of the university administration and library

8. University of London – The University of London is a collegiate research university located in London, England, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies. The university moved to a structure in 1900. The specialist colleges of the university include the London Business School, Imperial College London was formerly a member before leaving the university in 2007. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016, in post-nominals, the University of London is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin. From the Latin Universitas Londiniensis, after its degree abbreviations, University College London was founded under the name London University in 1826 as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In response to the controversy surrounding such educational establishment, Kings College London was founded and was the first to be granted a royal charter. Yet to receive a charter, UCL in 1834 renewed its application for a royal charter as a university. In response to this, opposition to exclusive rights grew among the London medical schools, the idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education, in 1835, the government announced the response to UCLs petition for a charter. Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the university started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, however, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted during our Royal will and pleasure, queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL, the university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts, laws and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, in medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. Beyond the right to students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university. In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, about 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their rich velvet facings, the list of affiliated colleges grew by 1858 to include over 50 institutions, including all other British universities. In that year, a new charter effectively abolished the affiliated colleges system by opening up the examinations to everyone whether they attended a college or not. The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the number of students at the provincial university colleges

9. University of Jaffna – The University of Jaffna is a public university in the city of Jaffna in Sri Lanka. Established in 1974 as the campus of the University of Sri Lanka, it became an independent. Like all public universities in Sri Lanka, UoJ receives the bulk of its funding from the University Grants Commission, the UGC and the central government therefore exert a great deal of control over the university. UoJ has two campuses — the main campus in Thirunelvely in Jaffna and a campus in Vavuniya. It also has facilities in Ariviyal Nagar near Kilinochchi, Kaithady and it has ten faculties and thirteen other academic units/centres. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses that award various degrees, the university had 7,195 students and 1,305 employees in 2015. It is the eighth largest university in Sri Lanka in student numbers, in 2014/15 the university admitted 2,359 undergraduates. UoJ had a recurrent budget of Rs.1,885 million and its income in 2015 was Rs.2,650 million of which Rs.2,595 was grant from the central government in Colombo. The chancellor and vice-chancellor are professors S. Pathmanathan and Vasanthy Arasaratnam respectively, UoJ is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities. K. Kailasapathy, head of the Department of Tamil and Hindu studies of the Vidyalankara campus of the University of Sri Lanka, was appointed as the first president of the Jaffna campus, 121/15 was published on 25 July 1974 establishing the Jaffna Campus. The new campus started functioning on 1 August 1974 at the Parameswara College premises in Thirunelvely some 4 km north of Jaffna city centre, Parameswara College had been founded in 1921 by P. Ramanathan. The campus had approval for three faculties and one department, only the Humanities and Science faculties were functioning when the campus started taking students in October 1974. The Faculty of Humanities and campus administration were based at Thirunelvely, the Faculty of Science was based at the undergraduate section of Jaffna College, Vaddukoddai which had been taken over by the government on 13 August 1974. The Faculty of Humanities was renamed Faculty of Arts in 1975, the Ramanathan Academy of Fine Arts, based at Ramanathan College in Maruthanarmadam, was taken over by the Jaffna Campus on 1 December 1975. The Faculty of Science moved to Thirunelvely in June 1978 and the Jaffna College site was returned to its owners the Jaffna Diocese of the Church of South India. The Faculty of Medicine was established on 7 August 1978 with its base at the Ayurvedic Hospital in Kaithady, the Universities Act No.16 of 1978 radically altered university education in Sri Lanka. The University of Sri Lanka was abolished and its six campuses were each elevated to independent, a gazette was issued on 22 December 1978 establishing the University of Jaffna with effect from 1 January 1979. The Faculty of Medicine was shifted to Thirunelvely in 1981, construction of a new library, student centre and arts block began in 1981 but were halted due to the civil war

10. University of Peradeniya – The University of Peradeniya is a state university in Sri Lanka, funded by the University Grants Commission. It was established as the University of Ceylon in 1942 and it claims to have the largest government endowment by a higher education institution in Sri Lanka, based on its large staff and faculties/departments. In 2016 University of Peradeniya has been ranked by 1st place for excellence, in Sri Lanka University of Peradeniya has been ranked in 2nd place for total evaluated rank. This has been published by Webometrics in September 2016, in 2013 University of Peradeniya was ranked #1 in Sri Lanka in research by ResearchGate. In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance, University of Peradeniya ranked 1426th in the world and it is the only Sri Lankan university ranked under URAP. This rank chart is showing the ranked list of Sri Lankan universities, the Ministry of Higher Education published this rank list in 04.07.2014. According to this ranking, University of Peradeniyas prosperity is at a high level, on a site that touches the lower slopes of the lush Hanthana mountain range, University of Peradeniya is famous for its natural beauty. Its picturesqueness has inspired many intellectuals like Prof. Ediriweera Sarachchandra, the university is in the Central Province,8 km from the sacred city of Kandy and about 110 km from Colombo. A tourist attraction, Botanical Garden of Peradeniya is close by, the university spans nearly 700 hectares in the Mahaweli flood plain. Most of the area remains afforested, climate around the university is mild, and the temperature fluctuates between 18 and 30 degrees Celsius. The main entrance to the university is through Galaha road, the Faculty of Engineering is on one side of the Mahaweli River and all other faculties are on the other side. The Akbar bridge links the two banks of the river, considered as a marvel of civil engineering, it was designed by late Prof. A. Thurairajah and built by the first batch of the faculty, in the year of its inception. The Sarasavi Uyana railway station is on campus, another bridge known as Yaka Paalama links the railway to the other bank. Daily shuttle bus services operate from Kandy to Galaha junction and Kandy to the university, a separate subcampus was established in 1968 at Mahailuppallama, North Central province for the Faculty of Agriculture. Separate residential facilities are provided to this subcampus, the proposal for the establishment of University of Ceylon, the first university of Sri Lanka goes back to 1899. But no progress was seen until the formation of Ceylon University Association in 1906 under the guidance of Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam, Sir James Peiris and Sir Marcus Fernando. Its request for a European-style university in Sri Lanka was partially granted by the British rulers with the formation of Ceylon University College on 1 January 1921. The University Council, through which the administration of the Ceylon University College was done and it made suggestions to build the university in Bullers Road in Colombo, but it was disputed by politicians

11. Sinhalese language – Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala, is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million. Sinhalese is also spoken as a language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages, Sinhalese has its own writing system, the Sinhalese alphabet, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script closely related to the Kadamba alphabet. Sinhalese is one of the official and national languages of Sri Lanka, Sinhalese, along with Pali, played a major role in the development of Theravada Buddhist literature. The closest relative of Sinhalese is the language of the Maldives and Minicoy Island, Sinhala is a Sanskrit term, the corresponding Middle Indo-Aryan word is Sīhala. The name is a derivation from siṃha, the Sanskrit word for lion Siṃhāla is attested as a Sanskrit name of the island of in the Bhagavata Purana, the name is sometimes glossed as abode of lions, and attributed to a supposed former abundance of lions on the island. According to the chronicle Mahavamsa, written in Pali, Prince Vijaya, in the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits. An example of an Eastern feature is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular in Sinhalese Prakrit. There are several cases of vocabulary doublets, e. g. the words mässā and mäkkā, some of the differences can be explained by the substrate influence of the parent stock of the Vedda language. Sinhalese has many words that are found in Sinhalese, or shared between Sinhalese and Vedda and not etymologically derivable from Middle or Old Indo-Aryan. Common examples are kola for leaf in Sinhala and Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda, Other common words are rera for wild duck, and gala for stones. The author of the oldest Sinhalese grammar, Sidatsangarava, written in the 13th century CE, the grammar lists naramba and kolamba as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba is the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo, however, formal Sinhalese is more similar to Pali and medieval Sinhalese. g. I do not know whether it is new, as a result of centuries of colonial rule, modern Sinhalese contains some Portuguese, Dutch and English loanwords. It is now spoken by a few families in Macau and in the Macanese diaspora, Sinhalese shares many features common to other Indo-European languages. For native speakers all dialects are mutually intelligible, and they might not even realise that the differences are significant, the language of the Vedda people resembles Sinhala to a great extent, although it has a large number of words which cannot be traced to another language. The Rodiya use another dialect of Sinhalese, Rodiya used to be a caste in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka no longer recognizes castes, in Sinhalese there is distinctive diglossia, as in many languages of South Asia

12. St Peter's College, Colombo – St. Peters College is a boys-only primary to secondary school in the Bambalapitiya zone of Colombo, Sri Lanka, founded in 1922. In 1919, just after the end of World War I, le Goc, Rector of St Josephs College, Colombo, wanted to start a college in the southern suburbs of Colombo, and acquired a block of cinnamon land in Bambalapitiya. Construction began on July 7,1921 under the supervision of J R J Jayesuria, le Goc announced that St. Josephs College South would open in January 1922. The buildings were designed by Fr, le Goc, and were built in six months. The quadrangle in front had an oval drive running around it, le Goc also incorporated the concept of open-air classrooms. The inauguration took place on Wednesday January 18,1922,204 students were admitted on that day and by the end of the year the number had risen to 268. The First rector was Fr. D. J. Nicholas Perera O. M. I, as of 2015 the Rector is Rev. Fr. Trevor Martin, and there were 6,088 students, St. Josephs College, Colombo was founded in March 1896. St. Joseph’s College South, later St. Peter’s College, was built on neglected cinnamon land bordering the Galle Road and alongside the Wellawatte Canal, leGoc with a large number of Josephian students and Staff opened the new school. Thus was St. Joseph’s College South born on 18 January 1922, Rev. Fr. D. J. Nicholas Perera was appointed President of the College, with classes from Grade 1 to Grade 7, while the number on roll was 204. Peter’s not to be vested with the State but to function as a ‘Non Fee Levying Private School’, nevertheless, and notwithstanding each of the five Rectors of this difficult era made their individual contribution to the progress of St. Peter’s never succumbing to problems of the times. A Cultural Centre to promote Music, Drama, Dancing and Art was started in November 1956 with the help of Fathers Mervyn Weerakkody, kandyan Dancing, Oriental Singing and the Western and Oriental Orchestras were set up. Rowing was introduced to St. Peter’s in 1959, as also a unit of the St. John’s Ambulance Brigade, on December 1,1960 St. Peter’s decided to remain as a private non-fee-paying institution. Arthur Nicholas Fernando set up the Welfare Society, a modern canteen, Mervyn Weerakkody succeeded Arthur Nicholas Fernando and was the Fourth Rector from 1963 to 1971. He formed the Parent Teacher Association, boards of Discipline, Studies and Sports were formed. He established the Employees Provident Fund for the Teaching Staff, on the 24 July 1971 he left St. Peter’s to take up the Rectorship of St. Joseph’s. Theodore E. Peiris O. M. I. who had been on the Tutorial Staff of St. Peter’s in the 1940s, succeeded Weerakkody and he presided at the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the College on 18 January 1972. The Sixth Rector of St. Peter’s, Fr, claver Perera, was the first Peterite rector, from 1975 to 1976

13. Ceylon University College – Ceylon University College was a public university college in Ceylon. Established in 1921, it was Ceylons first attempt at university education, the college didnt award degrees under its own name but prepared students to sit the University of Londons external examination. The college was based in Colombo, the college was merged with Ceylon Medical College in 1942 to form the University of Ceylon. The college was known as University College, Ceylon, University College, Colombo. Its buildings and grounds are now occupied by the University of Colombo which is considered its successor, the countrys elite would send their children to be educated at British universities. Demand started growing for the establishment of a university in Ceylon, the Ceylon University Association was formed in 1906 by a group of the countrys elite including Ponnambalam Arunachalam, James Peiris and Marcus Fernando. In June 1911 Governor Henry McCallum appointed a ten-member sub-committee of the Legislative Council of Ceylon to look into education in Ceylon, the Macleod Committee finished its work in 1912 and amongst its recommendations were that a university college be established to centralise the countrys fragmented higher education system. McCallum accepted the recommendations and submitted the proposals to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The proposals were sent back with questions which were in turn answered by Robert Chalmers, the college would be called Ceylon University College and would be based in the buildings of Royal College, Colombo. The college was to be residential and hostels would be provided by the government, the college was to be open to women. The college would in due course be converted into a degree-granting university, the proposals were accepted by the Secretary of State. World War I and the increases in prices put a halt to the project. The project was resurrected in 1917 and provision was made in the 1917/18 budget for construction of new facilities and purchase of equipment. However, work was slow and in May 1920 the government purchased Regina Walauwa, Regina Walauwa was later renamed College House. Denham, the local Director of Education, decided that the college should open immediately, provision was made in the 1920/21 budget for the running of the college which officially opened on 24 January 1921. The college was not affiliated to the University of Oxford as originally proposed, edwin Evans, the acting Director of Education, was the colleges first principal. All classes were held at College House except science which was taught at Government Technical Schools,115 students were registered at the college in its first academic year at the end of which eight students sat the University of Londons examinations, seven of whom passed. Robert Marrs succeeded the Director of Education as principal at the beginning of the 1921/22 academic year, the University College laboratories were opened by Governor William Manning on 1 October 1921 and the teaching of science was transferred from Government Technical Schools to the new laboratories

14. Santiniketan – Shantiniketan is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 160 km north of Kolkata. It was established by Maharshi Devendranath Tagore, and later expanded by his son Rabindranath Tagore whose vision became what is now a university town, Shantiniketan was earlier called Bhubandanga, and was owned by the Tagore family. In 1862, Maharshi Devendranath Tagore, while on a visit to Raipur, earlier, on request from his zamindar friend, Maharshi use to teach his son English occasionally. On this occasion Maharshi Devendranath expressed his desire to open up an ASHRAM, then his friend told Maharshi Devendranath about a big barren land near Bolpur. Maharshi showed his interest to see the place himself, then he took Maharshi one day to the barren land. There was only one building there namely Santiniketan, Maharshi liked the place very much and expressed it to his friend. His friend readily agreed to give the entire land to Maharshi Devendranath. Shantiniketan became a centre where people from all religions were invited to join for meditation. He founded an Ashram here in 1863 and became the initiator of the Brahmo Samaj, here Rabindranath Tagore started Patha Bhavana, the school of his ideals, whose central premise was that learning in a natural environment would be more enjoyable and fruitful. After he received the Nobel Prize, the school was expanded into a university in 1921, by 1951, it had become one of Indias central universities. Barun De, Historian, who was a member of both the court and the council of Visva Bharati. Rajat Kanta Ray, Historian, who was a chancellor of Visva Bharati. Amartya Sen, Economist, who studied at Patha Bhavana, Santiniketan, surajit Sinha, Anthropologist, who was the vice chancellor of Visva Bharati, Santiniketan. Supriyo Tagore, Educationist, who was the longest serving principal of Patha Bhavana, Shantiniketan is at 23. 68°N87. 68°E /23.68,87.68. It has an elevation of 56 metres. Shantiniketan can be visited at any time of the year, the climate is moderately warm, with summer temperatures at around 34-45 °C and winter at 8-15 °C. July and August see heavy rainfall, social and cultural events take place throughout the year. These include Basanta Utsav, Barsha Mangal, Sharodutsav, Nandan Mela, Poush Mela, Magh Mela, of these, the Poush Mela is a major tourist attraction

15. Indian philosophy – Indian philosophy comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent. There are six schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta. However, there are methods of classification, Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva. The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between 1000 BCE to the centuries of the Common Era. Competition and integration between the schools was intense during their formative years, especially between 800 BCE and 200 CE. Some schools like Jainism, Buddhism, Yoga, Śaiva and Advaita Vedanta survived, ancient and medieval era texts of Indian philosophies include extensive discussions on Ontology, reliable means of knowledge, value system and other topics. They differ in their assumptions about the nature of existence as well as the specifics of the path to the ultimate liberation and their ancient doctrines span the diverse range of philosophies found in other ancient cultures. These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons, Nyaya-Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. The Vedanta school is divided into six sub-schools, Advaita, also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita, Dvaita, Dvaitadvaita, Suddhadvaita. This orthodox-heterodox terminology is a construct of Western languages, and lacks scholarly roots in Sanskrit, Cārvāka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and, is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism. Several Śramaṇic movements have existed before the 6th century BCE, notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Cārvāka, Ajñana and Ājīvika. Jainism, like Buddhism, is a religion and rejected the authority of the Vedas. However, like all Indian religions, it shares the core such as karma, ethical living, rebirth, samsara. Jainism places strong emphasis on asceticism and ahimsa as a means of spiritual liberation, Buddhist philosophy is a system of thought which started with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, or awakened one. Buddhism and Hinduism mutually influenced each other and shared concepts, states Paul Williams, however it is now difficult to identify. The influence of 3rd-century CE Buddhist Tathagatagarbha Sutras on the Advaita Vedanta Hindu scholar Gaudapada – a major school of thought within Hinduism, is clear, Buddhism rejected the Vedic concepts of Brahman and Atman at the foundation of Hindu philosophies. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a soul in favour of anatta. The philosophy of Ājīvika was founded by Makkhali Gosala, it was a Śramaṇa movement, Ājīvikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete monastic communities prone to an ascetic and simple lifestyle

16. University of London International Programmes – The University of London International Programmes is a division of the University of London which manages external study programmes. The System offers courses of study for undergraduate and postgraduate diplomas, a designated constituent institution of the University of London, called the lead college, creates materials to allow students to study at their own pace. Examinations take place at testing centres around the world on specified dates, hallmarks of the programme are its low cost in comparison to attendance in London, and the possibility of pursuing either full-time or part-time study. As stated in the University of London Statutes, International Programmes students are graded on the standard as internal students to ensure a uniform credentialing process. A student who completes a course of study under the programme is awarded a University of London degree with a notation specifying which lead college provided the instruction. The institution that became known as University College London was established in 1828, calling itself London University. The issue soon boiled down to which institutions had degree-granting powers, as Sheldon Rothblatt states, thus arose in nearly archetypal form the famous English distinction between teaching and examining, here embodied in separate institutions. Several current degree-awarding universities started as colleges presenting candidates for University of London degrees, the soldiers were sent study materials by mail, and at specified intervals sat for proctored exams in the camps. Almost 11,000 exams were taken at 88 camps between 1940 and 1945, though the failure rate was high, substantial numbers of soldiers earned degrees while imprisoned. With the advent of inexpensive airmail services after the war, the number of students taking University of London courses increased dramatically. According to relevant Regulations, until 2000 University of London external students could pursue research leading to the award of MPhil or PhD albeit the completion rate had been rather low, the University of London International Programmes commemorated its 150th anniversary in 2008. A specially commissioned anniversary book was produced to mark the occasion, the system offers courses of study for undergraduate and postgraduate diplomas and degrees to more than 50,000 students around the world. A designated constituent institution of the University of London, called the lead college, examinations take place at testing centres around the world on specified dates. Hallmarks of the programme are its low cost in comparison to attendance in London, as stated in the University of London Statutes, International Programmes students are graded on the same standard as internal students to ensure a uniform credentialing process. A student who completes a course of study under the program is awarded a University of London degree with a notation specifying which lead college provided the instruction, Students enrolled in the University of London International Programmes are members of the University of London. International Programmes Students however, have very limited student representation within the University, there are also differences over the status International Programmes Students have with respect to their lead college. Some institutions co-register their International Programmes Students as college members, in addition to their status as University of London member, however, other colleges deny International Programmes Students membership status and privileges when they are present in London. Academics at the University of London are responsible for the direction of the International Programmes

17. University of Ceylon – The University of Ceylon was the only university in Sri Lanka from 1942 until 1972. It had several constituent campuses at various locations around Sri Lanka, the University of Ceylon Act No.1 of 1972, replaced it with the University of Sri Lanka which existed from 1973 to 1978. In 1978 it was separated into four independent universities and these are the University of Colombo, the University of Peradeniya, Vidyodaya University and the University of Kelaniya. Agitation for the provision of education in the island and for the establishment of a University began by the mid 19th century. Owing to the persistent demands of the Association the government decided in 1913 to set up a University College affiliated to the University of London. The Ceylon University College was formally declared open in January 1921 in the building that was originally the building of Royal College located on Thurstan Road opposite College House. From its inception, the University College was regarded as only a step, a half-way house. The University of Ceylon was established on 1 July 1942 by the Ceylon University Ordinance No.20 of 1942 by amalgamating the Ceylon Medical College, the first official announcement of the creation of a separate University in Colombo was made in Parliament in the Throne Speech of 1967. The University of Ceylon Act No.1 of 1972, which replaced the Higher Education Act of 1966 altered the complexion of the hitherto familiar University structure. The four independent autonomous universities which had set up by then. Its headquarters designated Senate House was located in Colombo and this arrangement did not last very long. With the promulgation of the Universities Act, the First Years of the University of Ceylon University of Colombo University of Peradeniya University of Sri Jayewardenepura

18. Pali – Pali is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and is the language of Theravāda Buddhism. The word Pali is used as a name for the language of the Theravada canon, Childers translates the word as series and states that the language bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure. However, modern scholarship has regarded Pali as a mix of several Prakrit languages from around the 3rd century BCE, combined together and partially Sanskritized. The closest artifacts to Pali that have found in India are Edicts of Ashoka found at Gujarat, in the west of India. There is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāḷi to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, Pali, as a Middle Indo-Aryan language, is different from Sanskrit more with regard to its dialectal base than the time of its origin. A number of its morphological and lexical features show that it is not a continuation of Ṛgvedic Vedic Sanskrit. Instead it descends from one or more dialects that were, despite many similarities, however, this view is not shared by all scholars. Some, like A. C. Woolner, believe that Pali is derived from Vedic Sanskrit, Paiśācī is a largely unattested literary language of classical India that is mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. e. Evidence which lends support to this interpretation is that literature in Paiśācī is fragmentary and extremely rare, many Theravada sources refer to the Pali language as Magadhan or the language of Magadha. This identification first appears in the commentaries, and may have been an attempt by Buddhists to associate more closely with the Maurya Empire. The Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his life are all outside of it and it is likely that he taught in several closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree of mutual intelligibility. There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pali, Pali has some commonalities with both the western Ashokan Edicts at Girnar in Saurashtra, and the Central-Western Prakrit found in the eastern Hathigumpha inscription. In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century, the work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. Another scholar states that at time it was a refined. Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue, after the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language. According to K. R. Norman, it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, in the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation

19. Western philosophy – Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. The word philosophy itself originated from the Hellenic, philosophia, literally, the scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of the ancient philosophers, were all intellectual endeavors. Western Philosophy is generally said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor with Thales of Miletus and his most noted students were respectively Anaximander and Anaximenes of Miletus. Pythagoras, from the island of Samos off the coast of Ionia, pythagoreans hold that all is number, giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians. They also believe in metempsychosis, the transmigration of souls, or reincarnation, Socrates The key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates. Socrates studied under several Sophists but transformed Greek philosophy into a unified, Socrates used a critical approach called the elenchus or Socratic method to examine peoples views. He aimed to study human things, the life, justice, beauty. Although Socrates wrote nothing himself, some of his many disciples wrote down his conversations and he was tried for corrupting the youth and impiety by the Greek democracy. He was found guilty and sentenced to death, although his friends offered to help him escape from prison, he chose to remain in Athens and abide by his principles. His execution consisting in drinking the poison hemlock and he died in 399 B. C, Plato Socrates most important student was Plato. Plato founded the Academy of Athens and wrote a number of dialogues, some central ideas of Platos dialogues are the immortality of the soul, the benefits of being just, that evil is ignorance, and the Theory of Forms. Forms are universal properties that constitute reality and contrast with the changeable material things he called becoming. Aristotle Platos most outstanding student was Aristotle, Aristotle was perhaps the first truly systematic philosopher and scientist. He wrote books on physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, politics, Aristotelian logic was the first type of logic to attempt to categorize every valid syllogism. Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all western philosophers, including Greek, Roman, Christian, Jewish, the Neoplatonic and Christian philosophers of Late Antiquity. Early medieval philosophy was influenced by the likes of Stoicism, neo-Platonism, but, above all, the prominent figure of this period was St. Augustinianism was the preferred starting point for most philosophers up until the 13th century. The foundations of many northern European universities were built in the Middle Ages by waves of Irish, Scottish & English monks from the Celtic Church begun by Columba, see Celtic Christianity. Erigena is said to have been stabbed to death by his students with their pens and his theology would today be called pantheistic, in keeping with Celtic resolutions of pagan and Christian philosophy

20. Buddhism – Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars, Theravada and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha

21. Kerala – Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land

22. South India – The region occupies 19. 31% of Indias land area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse, with two ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. The Godavari River, Krishna River, Kaveri, Tungabhadra and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Coimbatore and Kochi are the largest urban areas. Majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, european countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. HDI in the states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India, South India also known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names. Carnatic derived from Karnād or Karunād meaning high country has also associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE, artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region, however, the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. C. to 14th century A. D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region. The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French, the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Travancore, Kochi, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states, Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin

23. Ramon Magsaysay Award – The prize was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund based in New York City with the concurrence of the Philippine government. It is named after Ramon Magsaysay, the seventh President of the Philippines, the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives the prize to Asian individuals achieving excellence in their respective fields. As of 2016, recipients have come from twenty-two Asian countries, the 2016 awardees were Vientiane Rescue, Conchita Carpio-Morales, Dompet Dhuafa, Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, T. M. Krishna and Bezwada Wilson. Compare to questions raised here, Singh Negi, Rajender, Magsaysay Award, Asian Nobel, Not so Noble. Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation Blog

24. Theatre of Sri Lanka – Theatre of Sri Lanka originated from traditional rituals and folk dramas in the 19th century. Until that period, the art was confined to small villages, dramas in Sri Lanka began first with ritualist performances of early polytheistic religions. Originating as masked dances intersnouring gods and ridding demons, these gradually became free of religion and these early dramas w With the arrival of Europeans and urbanisation, the Sinhalese began to view theatre as a serious and secular art. At first, urban dramas were derivative borrowing heavily from English drama, or from Parsi theatre musicals and Bombay and these catered to a small audience, and drew the ire of strict Buddhists who considered them worthless. They were further attacked by the development of a Protestant Buddhism, therefore, the words kolam and nadagam took a connotation of something ridiculous or nonsense in Sinhala. It would take until the 1950s for serious Sinhala dramas to develop, with independence of Ceylon from Great Britain and a widespread appreciation of Sinhala culture, Ediriweera Sarachchandra led the movement for serious Sinhala theatre. Major theatres in Sri Lanka include King George Hall of the University of Colombo, Navarangahala of the Royal College, Colombo, Elphinstone Theatre, the Lionel Wendt Art Centre and the Nelung Arts Centre combines live theatre and art exhibition, with exhibition galleries and theatres

25. Virtual International Authority File – The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records

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