Reference For Mall Of America Case Study

In the span of just a few months, the Mall of America (MOA) became the center of two debates regarding peoples’ rights in quasi-public spaces. On December 20th, 2014 the Black Lives Matter (BLM) organization staged a protest in the MOA rotunda:

If you’re unaware of the whole issue, bone up here. Specious allegations that massesofpeople in the rotunda disrupt shoppers aside, BLM was warned in advance by the mall. The MOA even graciously offered up a parking lot far from where people can see or hear their message. I guess I wasn’t shocked Black Lives Matter didn’t take them up on the offer. In response to the illegal actions of the protesters, 10 members may face charges from the City of Bloomington. It should be noted that, from a strictly legal point of view, the right to protest at the Mall of America has already been weighed by the MN Supreme Court. Despite tax increment financing and other public bone moneys used to improve the site and build infrastructure to serve it, the public is not granted right to free assembly as the MOA is still a private place of business.

A quick perusal of the (always-enlightening) comment sections of any article or Facebook post showed some considerable vitriol toward the protesters – the odds they may inflict bodily harm on other shoppers, their disturbance to the shopping experience during the busiest time of the year, the mall’s clear legal right to restrict free speech and assembly, to say nothing of some more insidious comments about race and BLM’s overarching mission. I distinctly remember questioning whether these exact folks would stand behind the MOA’s right as a private entity to ban guns on its premises.

Fast forward to February 2015. The Mall of America falls victim to a terrorist threat on Sunday, February 23, which may or may not have been credible. State of Minnesota Representative Tony Cornish (R, Vernon Center), a strong gun rights advocate, came out in strong opposition of the MOA’s policy banning guns.

Rep. Cornish’s logic follows the landlord/tenant/guest clause of MN Statute 624.714, Subdivision 17(e). I’m no lawyer, but this seems to be a clear continuation of the residential discussion in the sub-section (d) right above it, or at the very least the legislative intent seems reasonably clear.

As you might expect, this particular discussion of guns brought out a metric grip-ton of comments and social media shares. I have no direct proof, but again I would wager a strong bet that gun proponents commenting and sharing would tend to be the type of people disparaging the BLM protesters. The same is true the other way around – many folks I know who attended the MOA protest or supported it think the MOA is entirely within its right to ban guns.

Talking Past Each Other

In both cases, you have two groups who are mostly talking past each other about the nature of our public spaces. In the BLM protest, most people acknowledge that the law is clearly settled on whether or not it was actually legal to assemble for whatever reason at the MOA. The argument is more one about the erosion of public spaces – where can people march, assemble, etc in our environment where an increasing percentage of places that matter are private (or simply don’t exist).

Would you meet a friend here for a stroll or coffee? Is it an effective place for protest? Artistic performance? If not, does it matter?

Is an unused parking lot 100% exchangeable for a place with thousands of humans who might actually pay attention owing to slight inconvenience? Why was the MOA fine with a protest on their private parking lot but not in the mall itself? Are there real-world implications for building places with private security that now act as the social gathering places once handled by town squares, prominent parks, street-fronting retail districts, and more?

I don’t think anyone is advocating every private structure be forced to allow any assembly by any group, but we have to acknowledge the deterioration of the number, quality, and proximity to people of our public spaces today as a direct result of a few private sector businesses, and that this most likely has a negative effect on a healthy democracy. To top it all off, this definitely applies for malls receiving (continued) public subsidy. That’s the argument, at least (one I subscribe to, for the record).

On the flip side, many in support of conceal-and-carry at the MOA are arguing from a stance of how the law should apply to them regarding bearing arms as a right of personal protection (those with a loose grip on legislative intent notwithstanding), while gun control activists are more than happy to defer to current statute. We could argue whether or not you’re more safe carrying a gun than without one. In my opinion, you’re not, but just like we all believe we’re above average drivers, so too do gun owners think they’re less likely to injure themselves or others.

It’s obvious that political ideologies are at play in forming opinions about what activity is tolerable in public spaces, or even what should be considered “public” in the first place. Both sides could reasonably accuse the other side of hypocrisy. While neither has the law on the side of their current viewpoint, both believe they have the moral right to advocate for change based on personal beliefs shaped by a mix of science and perceived social good. Public space advocates see the harm done by a potential accident (no matter how unlikely) from a “good guy with a gun” as immensely worse than the impacts from free assembly. Gun rights advocates believe the slow trickle of inconvenience and loss of business is worse than the potential errant bullet or inability to defend oneself from a terror attack (no matter how unlikely).

How do we reconcile these differences, especially when no one directly engages with one another?

There are so many topics where this problem rears its head – the right to road space for different modes, the value of subsidized transit (and roads), how many parks should we have, the benefits/drawbacks of new construction in existing neighborhoods, etc. We need to identify more productive ways to have these conversations rather than simply talking past each other.

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Not to be confused with Mall of the Americas.

Mall of America

The Mall of America logo

Alternative namesMoA
General information
TypeShopping mall
Address60 East Broadway, Bloomington, Minnesota, United States 55425
Coordinates44°51′15″N93°14′32″W / 44.85417°N 93.24222°W / 44.85417; -93.24222Coordinates: 44°51′15″N93°14′32″W / 44.85417°N 93.24222°W / 44.85417; -93.24222
OpeningAugust 11, 1992; 25 years ago (1992-08-11)
OwnerTriple Five Group
Technical details
Floor count4 on East and South Wings
3 on North and West Wings
Floor area2,500,000 sq ft (230,000 m2) + 5,400,000 sq ft (500,000 m2)
Design and construction
Architecture firmHGA, KKE Architects, Inc., Jerde Partnership[1]
Main contractorMelvin Simon & Associates
Triple Five Group
Other information
Number of stores500+
Number of anchors3
Parking12,287 spaces
(Two 7-story ramps and two overflow surface lots)
Website
mallofamerica.com

Mall of America (commonly, locally known as "MOA" or "the mall") is a shopping mall located in Bloomington, Minnesota, United States (a suburb of the Twin Cities). Southeast of the junction of Interstate 494 and Minnesota State Highway 77, north of the Minnesota River and across the Interstate from the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport. Opened in 1992, it is the second largest mall in terms of leaseable space, the largest mall in the United States in terms of total floor area (including Nickelodeon Universe), and the twelfth largest in the world.

The mall is managed by the Triple Five Group (which in turn is owned by Canada's Ghermezian family, along with the West Edmonton Mall). Eighty percent of visitors to the Mall of America are from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, the Dakotas, Illinois, Ohio, and Canada.[2]

History[edit]

The mall's concept was designed by the Triple Five Group, owned by the Ghermezian brothers, who also own the largest shopping mall in North America, the West Edmonton Mall. Mall of America is located on the site of the former Metropolitan Stadium, where the Minnesota Vikings and Minnesota Twins played until the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome opened in 1982. A plaque in the amusement park commemorates the former location of home plate, and one seat from Met Stadium was placed in Mall of America at the exact location it occupied in the stadium, commemorating a 520-foot (160 m) home run hit by hall-of-famerHarmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967.

In 1986, the Bloomington Port Authority signed an agreement with the Ghermezian organization. Groundbreaking for the mall took place on June 14, 1989. Organizations involved include Melvin Simon and Associates, Teachers Insurance and Annuity (a.k.a. TIAA), the Triple Five Group, and the office of architect Jon Jerde.

Mall of America opened its doors to the public on August 11, 1992. Even before opening, the mall had earned several nicknames, including "The Megamall", "Sprawl of America", "Hugedale"—in reference to the four major "dale" shopping malls within the Twin Cities: Rosedale, Southdale, Ridgedale, and (defunct as of 2010[update]) Brookdale—and simply, "The Mall".

The first episode of WCW's Monday Nitro was broadcast live from the Mall of America in Minneapolis, Minnesota on September 4, 1995.

Mall of America became the largest shopping mall in total area and largest in total store vendors in the United States when it opened. The Mall of America's 42 million annual visitors equal roughly eight times the population of the state of Minnesota. The mall employs over 11,000 workers year-round and 13,000 during peak seasons.[3]

During its run as an all-encompassing entertainment and retail venue, certain aspects, particularly its bars, have come under scrutiny. In early-2000 a Mardi Gras-themed bar, Fat Tuesday, shut its doors due to indecent exposure and alcohol-related offenses.[4]

In 2003, after a protracted six-year legal battle between Simon Property Group, the managing general partner of the property, and the Ghermezian brothers/Triple Five Group, over majority ownership of the site, a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the Ghermezians, effectively transferring control and planning authority of the mall back to the creator of the concept.[5] The dispute stemmed from a 1999 purchase of Teacher's Insurance's 27.5% equity stake by Simon Properties, giving them majority ownership. The Ghermezians claimed they were never told of the deal and sued Simon, citing fiduciary responsibility.

On November 3, 2006, the Ghermezians gained full control of Mall of America by spending US$1 billion.[6]

On May 18, 2008, the Minnesota State Legislature passed a bill granting the City of Bloomington the right to use $34 million in tax-increment-financing to pay for public infrastructure to support the MOA expansion. In early 2011, construction began on an expansion of the south side of the mall near Killebrew Drive, where the 506-room Radisson Blu hotel opened in March 2013. The addition of this hotel was for the purposes of increasing accessibility to the park and making the Mall of America a destination location for anyone. The addition of the light rail between the airport and the Mall of America also enabled people with layovers in Minneapolis to spend a convenient afternoon at the Mall of America.

On November 29, 2011, Google announced indoor maps for Mall of America along with several other places like airports, parks and public spaces.[7]

On January 3, 2012, Macy's Inc. announced it would close its Bloomingdale's location at the Mall of America.[8]

On March 24, 2012, the Triple Five Group announced the start of a $200 million expansion that would build into the north parking lot of the mall. Rather than the long planned Phase II expansion, this would be a step in building this expansion. The plans call for an additional hotel and an additional 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of retail space.[9] In March 2014, ground was broken on the mall's north side for the $104 million, 14-story JW Marriott hotel, owned and financed by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community.[10]

In winter 2012–2013, Mall of America hosted a 40 feet (12 m) tall ice castle made of icicles formed from 4 million gallons of water and then fused together. The castle joined 50 large ice towers together to create a series of shimmering archways, tunnels, walls and caverns.[11]

In 2016, King of Prussia Mall in King of Prussia, PA finished building a 140,000+ square ft. expansion with all new shops and restaurants connecting its two buildings; the plaza, and the court. This expansion meant that Mall of America lost its spot of being the largest.

In 2018, It announced that MOA proposes huge indoor water park for a plan. The mall build the $150 to $200 water park project. It will be on early stages due to fact that diligence need to be done before it will go to friction. They plan a trip to West Edison Mall to see a similar water park. [12]

Architecture[edit]

The Mall of America has a gross area of 4,870,000 sq ft (452,000 m2) or 96.4 acres (390,000 m2), enough to fit seven Yankee Stadiums inside,[13] with 2,500,000 sq ft (230,000 m2) available as retail space.[3] The mall is nearly symmetric, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. More than 530 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners. The mall is organized into four different zones, each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion.[14]

Despite Minnesota's cold winters, only the mall's entrances and some below ground areas are heated. Heat is allowed in through skylights above the central amusement park area. The majority of the heat is produced by lighting fixtures, other electric devices, and people in the mall.[15] In fact, even during the winter, air conditioning systems may still be in use during peak hours to ensure a comfortable shopping environment.[16] Although the common areas are unheated, the individual stores do have heating systems.[17]

Two nearly identical seven-story parking ramps on the east and west sides of the mall provide 12,287 parking spaces. Overflow parking north of the building provides an additional 1,200–1,500 spaces, and 1,407 spaces are provided by IKEA.

Tenants[edit]

Level One is the location of Nickelodeon Universe amusement park (formerly Camp Snoopy), and first level of general retail which includes Sea Life Minnesota, Hard Rock Cafe, Lego Store, American Girl Place, Apple Store, Barnes & Noble, Fabletics, Sears, Macy's, and Microsoft Store,[18] Level Two features restaurants, shopping, MOA® Moments, and the first Verizon Wireless Destination Store. Level Three has two food courts with more than 20 fast food and full service restaurants, mini-golf, shopping, and Crayola Experience. Level Four is the entertainment level with Hooters, Cantina # 1, Rick Bronson's House of Comedy, Gameworks, Dick's Last Resort, Sky Deck Sports Grille and Lane, and the first U.S. location of SMAAASH, a virtual reality sports entertainment center.

The Theatres at Mall of America (Initially run by General Cinemas, bought out then rebranded by AMC Theatres,[19] and eventually operated by mall management) occupied the south side of the fourth floor through December 2016, when it closed permanently. It was replaced by Cinemex subsidiary CMX Cinemas in fall 2017.[20]

Attractions[edit]

Nickelodeon Universe is an indoor theme park in the center of the mall. The park features roller coasters, among numerous other rides and attractions, and is the largest indoor theme park in the United States. Unlike many indoor amusement parks, Nickelodeon Universe has a great deal of natural foliage in and about the park, and its floor has a wide variance in height – the highest ground level in the park is 15 feet (4.6 m) above the lowest. The rides include the roller coasters SpongeBob SquarePants Rock Bottom Plunge and Avatar Airbender, and a thrill ride called BrainSurge. The latter attraction bills itself as a "rather peculiar" ride. It also has a miniature golfing section called Moose Mountain. This miniature golf course features eighteen holes and a relatively fast astroturf surface.[citation needed]

At the Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium, guests travel through a 300-foot-long (91 m) curved tunnel through 14 feet (4.3 m) of water to view over 4,500 sea creatures including sharks, turtles, stingrays, and many more.[21] Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium offers special events such as sleepovers, scuba diving, snorkeling, and birthday parties.[22][third-party source needed]

The Mall recently added Crayola Experience and FlyOver America to the list of family attractions.

Nostalgic artifacts and memorials[edit]

  • A stadium seat commemorating the longest home run at Metropolitan Stadium, hit by Minnesota Twins player Harmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967. The seat is painted red and bolted to a wall to mark the exact height and position at which the ball landed in the upper-deck seats.[23]
  • A plaque embedded in the floor of Nickelodeon Universe, marking the exact spot of home plate at Metropolitan Stadium. [23]
    The home plate plaque in Nickelodeon Universe
  • A plaque embedded in the floor of Nickelodeon Universe, marking the spot of the 50 yard line at Metropolitan Stadium was added in 2018.
  • United Airlines Flight 93 memorial, for those who died aboard during the September 11, 2001, attacks—the bust of Tom Burnett (who was born and raised in Bloomington) is on the west side of the first floor, next to the fountain in front of Nordstrom.[24]

Transit[edit]

Main article: Mall of America (Metro Transit station)

In the lower level of the eastern parking ramp is the Mall of America Transit Station, the busiest transit hub in Minnesota with services to and from many destinations in the Minneapolis – St. Paul metropolitan area.

The Transit Station contains two stops on the Metro Transit network: the southern terminus of the METRO Blue Line (light rail) to Downtown Minneapolis via MSP Airport and Hiawatha Avenue (operated by Metro Transit), and the northern terminus of the METRO Red Line (BRT) to Lakeville (operated by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority). Both agencies also operate many local bus services to the Transit Station, and many area hotels along with the Mystic Lake Casino offer free shuttles to their establishments.

The mall is not a park and ride facility, and overnight parking is banned to prevent passengers taking the train to the airport. Commuters are required to use the nearby 28th Avenue Station's parking ramp.

The Mall of America Transit Station is undergoing a study to increase efficiency and capacities, and to provide a better experience for its users.[25] Estimates for the upgrade are approximately $20 million.

Security[edit]

The Mall of America's security program is unique and in many ways the first of its kind. Michael Rozin, who used to be employed as the mall's Special Operations Security Captain, developed and implemented a behavior detection unit specifically focused on mitigating the threat of terrorism and enhancing counter-terrorism capabilities.[26] Behavior Detection Officers (BDOs) are trained extensively in Israel, each one going through at least 240 hours of training that includes communication techniques, first aid, defensive tactics, crisis intervention, terrorism awareness, and rapid response.[27] As Doug Reynolds, the Security Director at the mall, noted in a congressional testimony in 2008, BDOs are taught to "look for intent, rather than means. The objective is to focus on suspicious indicators in three categories: People, vehicles and unattended items like backpacks, shopping bags, suitcases."[28] This methodology has prepared the mall for a variety of threats, both from terrorists and everyday criminals.

In 2011, NPR's All Things Considered and Morning Edition and PBS's Newshour both aired programs documenting security abuses by the mall's security personnel.[29][30]

In February 2015, the Al-Shabaab militant group also released a propaganda video calling for attacks on the Mall of America and other Western shopping centers.[31] Although the group had never launched attacks in North America,[32] security at the mall was tightened in response and Homeland Security issued a one-day alert to shoppers to remain vigilant.[31]

Criticism[edit]

During the first decade of MOA's existence, demonstrators protested animal cruelty and sweatshop conditions.[33] In 1994, protesters confronted actor Charlton Heston at a mall restaurant over his campaigning efforts on behalf of a Republican U.S. Senate candidate. In 1996, two people were arrested after they locked themselves to Macy’s doors in the spirit of the annual Fur-Free Friday demonstration. The Minnesota Supreme Court decided in 1999 that because the mall is private property, constitutional free speech protections do not apply.[33]

People inside the mall have been questioned or detained for operating video cameras, using notebooks, or other perceived suspicious behaviors. As of 2010[update], Michael Rozin, the former Special Operations Security Captain and founder of the mall's behavior detection unit instructed its members that "suspicious behavior" constitutes "photographing such things as air-conditioning ducts or signs that a shopper might have something to hide."[34] Commander Jim Ryan of the Bloomington Police Department commented that the mall's security methods may "infringe on some freedoms, unfortunately."[35]

On December 31, 2013, members from the First Nations protest movement Idle No More attempted to repeat a successful Native-American round dance held at the mall in 2012,[36] but failed after being stopped by mall security, who refused to allow Idle No More to hold their dance. Organizers of the dance, Patricia Shepard and Reyna Crow from Duluth were arrested on site for trespassing.[37]

On December 21, 2014, thousands of protesters attended an unauthorized demonstration organized by Black Lives Matter in the mall's rotunda. The demonstration was in response to the Michael Brown fatal shooting in Ferguson, Missouri, and the then recent jury decision not to prosecute the white officer in that case, as well as the death of Eric Garner of New York. In response to the demonstration, the Mall of America closed the areas of the mall around the rotunda.[38] Police arrested 25 demonstrators.[39] The Bloomington City Attorney, Sandra Johnson, is pursuing charges against the organizers, ranging "from disorderly conduct and trespassing to inciting a riot".[33] The city is seeking thousands of dollars in compensatory damages from some of the organizers for out-of-pocket costs the city incurred while paying overtime for additional security. In response to these charges, demonstrators have called for a boycott of the mall.[40]

Plans for another Black Lives Matter demonstration at the Mall of America on December 23, 2015 prompted Mall officials to file a restraining order against the movement's activists.[41] Eight individual activists were sued in Hennepin County District Court.[42] The mall's lawsuit would prohibit the defendants from demonstrating and require them to delete all of their posts to social media pertaining to the demonstration. The lawsuit additionally asked that the court jail Black Lives Matter activists unless they publicly announce that the demonstration is cancelled on their social media accounts. The American Civil Liberties Union of Minnesota called the mall's lawsuit an "improper prior restraint on speech" and an unconstitutional overreach.[43] Leaders of the demonstration indicated that the demonstration would go ahead as scheduled.[44]

Addition/expansion[edit]

Word of Mall of America's expansion has been stirring since the mid 1990s, however the first confirmation of an expansion occurred in 2005 when Triple 5 announces Mall of America Phase 2, a project that would expand the Mall of America to the north, crossing Lindau Lane and occupying the former site of Met Center.[45]

However, this expansion was delayed due to the tightening of the credit market. Eventually this was broken into four major projects: 1b, 1c, 2b, 2c.[46]

Status of Phase 2 completion:

Complete:

1B: Radisson Blu
South expansion complete 2013

1C: retail, restaurant, office and J.W. Marriott
North expansion complete 2016

Planned:
2B: 2-3 story retail expansion including connection over Lindau Lane, luxury hotel, addition parking ramp.
North Expansion on site of Met Center, Plan submitted to Bloomington Fall 2016, Construction 2017, Open 2018-2019

Concepts:
2C: 3 story retail plus additional hotel, entertainment venue located north of 2B with connections to Ikea and American Blvd
Shown on approved PDP from 2015 submission for 2B, but schedule dependent on 2B completion.

Amusement park and other features[edit]

  • The amusement park, during its "Camp Snoopy" days.

  • The Metropolitan Stadium home plate marker.

  • The carousel at the amusement park.

  • The band organ, formerly at the carousel entrance.

  • The Bubba Gump Shrimp Co. restaurant.

  • Another shot of the amusement park during the Camp Snoopy era.

  • Another shot of Camp Snoopy from a different angle. The Kite-Eating Tree ride is shown in this picture.

  • When Camp Snoopy became Nickelodeon Universe in 2008, the Kite-Eating Tree was restyled and renamed Swing-Along.

  • The three-story American flag, which was used on July 4, 2008.

  • The mall's information sign, which shows the use of "MOA".

  • Al's Farm Toys, a farm-themed toy store which closed in 2016.

  • A few of the unique sports-themed stores throughout the mall. Team Choice and Lids Locker Room (formerly Locker Room) closed, but Goldy's and Rybicki Cheese remain and Goldy's has since become Goldy's Locker Room.

  • The legendary mural imitating Seurat; formerly near the food court.

  • The Lego "Imagination Center", the longest-standing Mall attraction.

  • The Lego Store after 2009 remodeling.

Usage in media[edit]

The Mall of America was used as a filming location for various movies and television shows,[47] including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"The Mall of America". Translucency.com. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  2. ^Sandra Larriva and Gabe Weisert (April 25, 2007). "Most Visited Tourist Attractions". Forbes Traveler. Archived from the original on July 31, 2009. 
  3. ^ ab"Facts - Mall of America". Mall of America. Retrieved 2015-03-18. 
  4. ^"STATE OF MINNESOTA OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS FOR THE BLOOMINGTON CITY COUNCIL"(PDF). July 14, 2000. Archived from the original(PDF) on March 20, 2014. 
  5. ^"Brothers win back control of megamall; Simon Property will contest a ruling that transfers majority ownership". Star Tribune. September 12, 2003. 
  6. ^Black, Sam (November 3, 2006). "Ghermezians take sole control of Mall of America in $1B deal". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. 
  7. ^"A new frontier for Google Maps". Google. 2011. 
  8. ^"Bloomingdale's at Mall of America closing; space to be divided". Twin Cities. 2012-01-03. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 
  9. ^Webbtwebb, Tom. "Mall of America plans $200 million expansion". TwinCities.com. Retrieved July 24, 2012. 
  10. ^'Ground' broken on $325 million Mall of America expansion. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  11. ^"Mall of America | Pressroom". Press.mallofamerica.com. October 25, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2013. 
  12. ^http://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2018/03/08/mall-of-america-indoor-water-park/
  13. ^[1] Citation of fitting "seven Yankee Stadiums" inside the retail space of MOA, listed in the City of Bloomington, MN Web site. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  14. ^"Mall of America' giant makeover ditches 90's in bid to stay hip". Startribune.com. Star Tribune. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  15. ^Elmasry, Faiza (October 10, 2006). "America's Largest Mall Offers More than Shopping". Voice of America. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. 
  16. ^Schapiro, Rose (November 29, 2007). "Road Trip to the Mall of America". Chicago Weekly. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  17. ^WCCO – TV (January 25, 2008). "Heating Costs". Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. 
  18. ^"MALL OF AMERICA® DIRECTORY MAP". Retrieved December 30, 2014. 
  19. ^DiCarlo, Lisa. "AMC To Acquire General Cinema". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-12-07. 
  20. ^Kumar, Kavita. "Shuttered Mall of America movie theaters will reopen with gourmet food, cocktails". Star Tribune. StarTribune. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  21. ^"*Official* SEA LIFE Minnesota". Sharky.tv. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  22. ^"*Official* SEA LIFE Minnesota". Sharky.tv. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  23. ^ ab"Baseball at the Mall". Dusty Lens. March 11, 2008. 
  24. ^Merullo, Roland (May 13, 2006). "Who Financed 9/11?". Reader's Digest Australia. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. 
  25. ^"Mall of America Transit Station"(PDF). Senate.MN. Minnesota Senate. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  26. ^"RSC Team - Security Subject Matter Experts". Archived from the original on 2015-10-06. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  27. ^"Inside the Anti-Terror Task Force at the Mall of America". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  28. ^Committee on Homeland Security House of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress (July 9, 2008). "The Challenge of Protecting Mass Gatherings in a Post-9/11 World". US Government Printing Office. Committee on Homeland Security. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  29. ^"Under Suspicion at the Mall of America". NPR. September 7, 2011. 
  30. ^PBS (September 2011). "Attention Mall Shoppers: Are You Engaging in Suspicious Activity?". PBS. 
  31. ^ ab"'Be particularly careful' today, U.S. homeland security chief tells MOA visitors". Star Truibune. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  32. ^"No "imminent threat" to West Edmonton Mall visitors, RCMP says". Edmonton Journal. 22 February 2015. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  33. ^ abcLIBOR JANY (December 24, 2014). "Bloomington seeks charges against Mall of America protesters". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  34. ^G.W. SCHULZ, DANIEL ZWERDLING and ANDREW BECKER (September 11, 2011). "They're watching at the Mall of America". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 8, 2015. 
  35. ^"The shadow of suspicion falls in the Mall of America". Salon. September 7, 2011. 
  36. ^Rupar, Aaron. "Idle No More flash dance brings more than 1,000 protesters to Mall of America". CityPages. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  37. ^KBJR News. ""Idle No More" Round Dance attempt ends in arrests at Mall of America". Northland Newsletter. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  38. ^The Associated Press. "Chanting 'Black Lives Matter,' Protesters Shut Down Part of Mall of America". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  39. ^Ben Brumfield (December 21, 2014). "'Black Lives Matter' protesters storm mall". CNN. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  40. ^
Sign at a Mall of America entrance, removed in 2014 as part of the Phase II expansion
The Mall of America has three levels on its West side, pictured above.
Nickelodeon Universe indoor theme park
Amusement park view from third floor

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